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Presenting the Tamm's Textbook Tools series:

AP World History (buy)

Student workbook for Traditions and Encounters by Jerry Bentley and Herbert Ziegler, 5th ed.



AP Psychology (buy)

Student workbook for Myers' Psychology for AP by David Myers, 1st ed.



AP Psychology (buy)

Student workbook for Myers' Psychology for AP by David Myers, 2nd ed.



Sociology (buy)

Student workbook for Sociology: A Down to Earth Approach by James Henslin, 11th ed.



World History (buy)

Supplementary reading for college history courses: Universal History and the Telos of Human Progress by David Tamm, 2nd ed.



1. Introduction / 13

Meaning in history.

2. Universal History / 15

What constitutes a universal history book? Two types identified.

3. The Concept of Time / 18

Where did ‘time’ come from? Astronomical and cultural sources.

4. The Idea of Progress / 21

Do human beings really build up society up over time?


5. The Beginnings of Universal History Writing / 23

What are the oldest books dedicated to the whole human story?

6. Progress versus Maintenance through Time / 24

Does civilization progress to an ever-higher plane; or rise and fall?

7. The Bible tells Universal History / 25

What does the Bible say about human progress and its direction?

8. The Wellsprings of Greco-Roman Universal History / 27

Hesiod describes a mythological Age of Gold.

9. The Greek Idea of Progress / 29

The lesson of Prometheus driving cultural progress ever higher.

10. Greek Universal History / 31

Herodotus stores knowledge outside of his head.

11. Other Ancient Universal Histories / 35

Ephorus, Polybius, Diodorus and Sima Qian write lost histories.

12. Roman Periodizations / 38

Did the pagan Romans think of the big picture as progressive?

13. The Roman Idea of Progress / 39

Lucretius develops a theory of continual change and progression.

14. Roman Universal History / 41

Livy, Tacitus and Seneca write histories and tell us why they did.

15. Christian Universal History / 43

Eusebius and Augustine develop the Christian theory of history.

16. The Christian Idea of Progress / 46

They see progress as motion toward the Kingdom of Heaven.

17. Early Medieval Chronicles / 51

Orosius, Bede and Gregory illuminate the Dark Ages.

18. Late Medieval Chronicles / 56

Gothic era historians like Enikel, Froissart and Khaldun produce.

19. The Plentitude of Progress / 61 

The stunning idea that all that ever can be is already within us.

20. The Renaissance Idea of Progress / 63

A return to cycles in the age of Sabellicus and Machiavelli.

21. Progress through Exploration / 66

Joachim de Fiore’s mystic vision and that of Columbus.

22. Universal History Unreformed / 67

A battle for history between Catholics and Protestants.

23. The Scientific Idea of Progress / 69

Bacon exercises ‘False Idols of the Mind’, Bodin links theories.


24. Broadening Horizons / 73

Raleigh & Heylyn observe the Old and New Worlds collide.

25. Pilgrims’ Progress / 83

The American vision was built on puritanical social evolution.

26. Twilight and Dawn / 85

Bossuet writes in the netherworld between medieval and modern.

27. Symbolic Strangers / 89

Culture shock comes with the realization that many cultures exist.

28. Ancients Versus Moderns / 91

Is human nature static or malleable?

29. Scientific Philosophers Barge into Universal History / 92

Spinoza, Leibniz and Vico’s insights on the Great Chain of Being.

30. The English Universal History (Ancient Part) / 95

The largest (and largely unknown) history project of all time.

31. The English Universal History (Modern Part) / 104

The project expands into 64 volumes of mercantilism-as-progress.

32. Primary Source Logistics / 111

Tobias Smollett on how the Universal History was assembled.

33. Voltaire’s Philosophy of History / 117

Most people don’t know Voltaire wrote a world history book.

34. Voltaire’s Idea of Progress / 120               

He sees civilization as building upon itself by developing the mind.

35. Voltaire’s Audience 123

The woman he wrote for, and her verdict.

36. Voltaire Judges History / 125

The Enlightenment penchant for equality means judging others.

37. The Enlightenment Idea of Progress / 127

The modernist project begins; Tennyson’s poem encapsulates it.

38. The Economic Idea of Progress / 129

Turgot gives the modernist project an economic dimension.

39. The American Idea of Progress / 134

Jefferson discusses progress as building a new civilization.

40. The Champion of Progress / 138               

Condorcet glows about the future yet is arrested by radicals.

41. The Goals of Progress Diverge / 144

Enlightenment liberality or Rousseauian neo-primitivism?

42. Romantic History / 146

Herder defines a people as a unique group with their own goals.

43. Kant Hypothesizes a Universal History / 150

Kant asks if humanity has an underlying unity or if it does not.

44. The Universal Historical Novel / 163

Walter Scott agrees each people has a unique character.

45. Popular Historical Education / 168

Millot writes a national world history textbook for France.

46. From Dano-Norway back to France / 173

Anquetil adapts works into French, Holberg writes one in Latin.

47. The EUH Distilled Again  /181

Mavor reworks it to be more approachable.

48. Professional Universal History / 187

A German university specializes in history’s codification.

49. Lost and Found in Translation / 192

Translation dilemmas open a series of questions in the genre.

50. Gottingen Produces Universal History / 196

Muller builds on Schlozer to construct a ‘professional’ work.

51. New Historical Methods / 203

Ranke and followers formulate how to best conduct research.

52. Engineering Progress / 209

Saint-Simon’s alternative method of doing republican government.

53. Sociological Bases / 211

What did Comte’s new branch of study say about social progress?

54. National Universal History / 213

Fichte discovers the metaphysical basis and purpose of the nation.

55. Universal History’s Motion / 215

Hegel’s titanic formulation synthesizes Geist, the engine of history.

56. Historical Materialism / 221

Marx’ reformulation determines material forces drive history.

57. Biological Universal History / 227

Darwin argues even biology progresses- by evolving new forms.

58. Universal Geography / 229

Humboldt explains why people must know the big picture.

59. History Advances in Germany / 236

Rotteck develops a liberal work in a monarchist principality.

60. The Capital of History / 242

Weber writes; Ploetz compiles a totally chronological style.

61. The Allgemeine Weltgeschichte / 244

A coalition of professors complete a huge universal history project.

62. Early-19th Century Anglo-Americans / 250

Lardner, Robbins and others begin a golden era of history writing.

63. A Woman Writes the Story of Man / 256

Pioneer educator Emma Willard writes for college women.

64. Mid-19th Century Anglo-Americans / 261

Goodrich and Maunder in the ides of the Industrial Age.

65. History and Manifest Destiny / 272

Duyckinck writes for a young America and inspires Melville.

66. Late-19th Century Textbooks / 276

Swinton, Myers and others write popular schoolbooks.

67. Publishing House History / 281

Ollier and Robinson are hired to write by learned organizations.

68. The Titans / 283

Ridpath, Clare and Tyler stand at the apex of history.

69. American Historical Progress / 292

Bancroft and others observe social progress in the United States.

70. Modernity and Social Change / 295

Sociologists like Weber announce modernism’s characteristics.

71. Modernity Drives Progress (and Vice-Versa) / 298

The condition of modern life defines fin de siecle progress.

72. Race in Universal History / 299

Chamberlain uses race science to explain uneven progress.

73. History through Ethnography 306

W.E.B. Dubois and Friedrich Ratzel examine ethnographic groups.

74. The End of the Beginning / 309

The meaning of history at the close of the 19th century.

75. Into the 20th Century / 310

Zenith of the Grand Narrative: Larned, Duruy, Ellis, Tappan.

76. Editors Extraordinaire 321

Helmolt, Williams, Lodge, and the Eleventh Britannica.

77. The History of All Nations / 333

Progress as the ever-increasing ability to control nature.


78. History in Eclipse / 342

Nietzsche expresses doubt in progress and the modernist project.

79. Rescuing Universal History / 348

WWI confirms Nietzsche; Wells writes a new Grand Narrative.

80. Interwar Universal History / 355

Horne, Breasted, Parsons and others write in an age of anxiety.

81. The Art of History / 362

Van Loon draws out history; the Nazis ban Gombrich’s book.

82. Powerful New Theses Appear / 368

Spengler and Toynbee build huge paradigms, others demur.

83. The Universal World-State / 377

Kojeve revisits Hegel and sees progress in an eventual world-state.

84. Under Eastern Eyes / 388

An Indian leader writes history to his daughter from prison.

85. History as the History of Civilization / 393

Hayes, Barnes and others produce Eurocentric textbooks.

86. Optimistic and Pessimistic Progressivisms / 408

Jacks stresses the need for a post-religious social goal.

87. On the Brink / 416

The Durants’ Grand Story appears in a time of grand trouble.


88. The War / 423

Something else died in the war besides 66 million people.

89. Cosmic Universal History / 426

Teilhard’s breathtaking synthesis of history as cosmic evolution.

90. New Ways of Studying Social Change / 439

Sztompka discusses thoughts on social change in a postwar world.

91. Aspects of Social Processes / 443

Do they move unilineally, spirally, cyclically, or in quantum leaps?

92. Postwar Historical Education / 448

Becker, Rogers, Muzzey, Starr, Cooper-Cole, Brinton and Neill.

93. History as the History of Civilizations / 470

Braudel becomes a renegade by making a powerful point.

94. History becomes Interdependent / 477

Stavrianos, McNeill and history through thematic webbing.

95. The Fate of Progress and the Modernist Project / 482

Why did developmentalism fall out of favor?

96. Bureaucratic Universal History / 488

The UN tries to write a history but runs into a roadblock: itself.

97. Universal History Criticized / 495

Neo-Academia applies Neo-Marxian Critical Theory to history.

98. Universal History Denuded / 516

Cultural Marxism, PC, Relativism & Multiculturalism v. the West.

99. Universal History Deconstructed / 519

Derrida and Foucault pick apart the notion of progress and history.

100. Postmodern Universal History / 527

Hayden White says the loss of the sacred has caused bitterness.

101. Alternatives to Postmodernity / 534

Coming home from nowhere.

102. Progress Persists / 535

Are remnants of the idea of progress still extant in society?

103. Progress 2.0 / 537

Sztompka argues ‘Progress 2.0’ can work if it molts out old stuff.

104. Universal History through Television / 540

Aspects of the Narrative on TV: Clark, Bronowski, Burke, Sagan.

105. Universal History Multimediated / 543

Treatments by NatGeo, History, BBC, Discovery and online.

106. Fun Universal History / 543

Lighthearted submissions by Asimov, Gonick, Murray and Barzun.

107. The Slim Volumes / 552

Histories readable in a weekend for the person on the go.

108. The Guides / 553

World History for Dummies, A Complete Idiot’s Guide, etc.

109. The Big Guns / 554

Garraty, Roberts, and Blainey keep the faith.

110. Textbooks of the Seventies / 564

Burns and Ostrowski present contrast like discoballs and big cars.

111. Textbooks of the Eighties / 568

Perry and Leinwand write history in neon times.

112. Textbooks of the Nineties / 569

Kreiger and Hanes edit the decadent decade’s major textbooks.

113. Textbooks of the 2000s / 573

Spielvogel and Beck contribute the terror decade’s classic texts.

114. Textbooks Today / 582

A new generation of textbooks that may not be so new.

115. Universal History at the University / 594

Spodek, Bentley, Bulliet, Stearns, Armesto, McKay & Strayer.

116. Universal History Globalized / 611

Sociology poses scenarios for what the future might be like.

117. Reverse Universal History / 616

Futurists join sociologists to try and project history into the future.

118. The End of Universal History / 623

Are today’s liberal states the final ‘product’ of history’s progress?

119. Evidence Against the End of History / 627

Fukuyama presents powerful contingencies against his own thesis.

120. Liberal Democracy as Telos / 637

If society is not satisfying enough for a restless species, what is?

121. Liberal Democratic Universal History / 639

Is there a Weltgeist for the whole world? Can its story be written?

122. Modern, Universal or Western? / 642

Huntington piles on more evidence against the End of History.

123. Clash against the West / 647

Quigley on decline, invasion and civilizational destruction.

124. Multiple Ends of History / 652

A new European Covenant to respect the Other without violence?

125. The Nation-State in a Globalized World / 655

The fate of the Westphalian nation is being decided. Should it die?

126. Culture Developing through History / 669

High, common, and popular culture: a new way to see them.

127. New Millennium, New History / 674

Fernandez-Armesto, Jared Diamond and David Christian.

128. Unique in Universal History / 680

Duchesne argues the West is a civilization set apart.

129. The Fate of Universal History / 690

Rounding up where we are and if meaning can be recovered.


130. Past Prologue / 692

From Plato’s Cave to Spaceship Earth: Seeing reality.

131. A Thought Experiment / 693

Looking up means looking out, and also in.

132. The Telos of Human Progress / 969

Zubrin and Kardashev state the goal of human progress.

133. The Vision of Galactic Civilization / 700

The magic of vision is that if it is there, the people prosper.

134. Progress within the End of History / 702

How our society at the End of History can discover meaning again.

135. Intimations of Zielgeist / 704

From Metrodorus of Chios through Bruno to Verne.

136. Prospects for Zielgeist / 705

NASA was animated by the spirit of achieving the unbelievable.

137. Awakening Zielgeist / 713

Packaging progress for a new generation as: “Goal Spirit”.

138. Awakening Scientific Zielgeist / 717

Studying core knowledge in science can be fun again?

139. Awakening Economic Zielgeist / 720

Howard Bloom’s series of historical vignettes help explain how.

140. Awakening Educational Zielgeist / 723

Unleashing the latent desire to know.

141. Awakening Political Zielgeist / 729

Building political capital into a social movement.

142. Awakening Social Zielgeist / 736

Repudiating the Culture of Repudiation with a powerful message.

143. Awakening Environmental Zielgeist / 739

Ronald Wright outlines ‘progress traps’ humanity has fallen into.

144. Is Goal Spirit Oppressive? / 744

Can an ‘absolute’ assertion jive with a multicultural population?

145. Zielgeist or Idiocracy / 746

A review of key moments in the history of the human condition.

146. Conclusion / 752

There are always two doors to the future.

Index of Historians / 754

Bibliography and Notes / 758

About the Author / 800      


Year    Author                  Title of World History Book

-400s   Bible                            Old Testament
-400s   Herodotus                    The Histories
-300s   Ephorus                        History
-100s   Polybius                       The Histories
-90s    Sima Qian                     Records of the Grand Historian
-60s    Lucretius                       On the Nature of Things
-40s    Diodorus                       Library of History
-20s    Livy                              Annals of the Roman People
40s     Seneca                          Naturales Quaestiones
300s    Eusebius of Caesarea    Ecclesiastical History
400s    Augustine of Hippo       City of God
400s    Orosius                        Seven Books of History Against the Pagans
500s    Gregory of Tours          Ten Books of Histories
600s    The Venerable Bede     Ecclesiastical History
600s    Isidore of Seville           The Etymology
900s    Al Tabari                      History of Prophets and Kings
1100s   Goffredo da Viterbo    Liber Universalis
1100s   Otto von Freising         History of the Two Civic Societies
1100s   Joachim of Fiore          Harmony of the Old and New Testaments
1200s   Helinand of Froidmont Chronicon
1200s   Vincent of Beauvais      The Great Mirror
1200s   Jans der Enikel             World Chronicle
1300s   Ranulf Higden               Polychronicle
1300s   R. al-Din Hamadani      Compilation of Chronicles
1300s   Jean Froissart               Chronicles
1400s   Ibn Khaldun                  Muquaddimah
1400s   Various                         Yongle’s Encyclopedia
1500    Marcantonius Sabellicus Enneades sive Rhapsodia historiarum
1554    Marcin Bielski               World Chronicle
1589    Mattias Flacius              Magdeburg Centuries
1607    Caesar Baronius            Annales
1610    Walter Raleigh               History of the Whole World
1666    Peter Heylyn                  Cosmographie
1682    Jacques-Benigne Bossuet Discourse on the History of the Whole World
1747    George Sale et al.           Universal History – Antient Part
1757    Voltaire                          Essay on Manners and Spirit of Nations
1758    Ludwig von Holberg       Synopsis of Universal History
1765    Tobias Smollett et al.       Universal History – Modern Part
1772    Claude Millot                  Elements of General History
1784    Johann von Herder          Reflections on the Philosophy of History
1784    Immanuel Kant                Idea for a Universal History
1789    Marquis de Condorcet    Sketch of the Progress of the Human Mind
1789    Friedrich Schiller             What is Universal History?
1793    Louis-Pierre Anquetil       Summary of Universal History
1795    John Adams                    A View of Universal History
1804    William Fordyce Mavor   Universal History
1811    Johannes von Muller        An Universal History
1819    Frederick Butler              Sketches of Universal History
1822    Conrad Malte-Brun         Universal Geography
1824    Leopold von Ranke         Various
1830    Dionysus Lardner            Outlines of Universal History
1830    Royal Robbins                 The World Displayed
1832    George Putnam                Tabular Views of Universal History
1835    Emma Willard                  System of Universal History
1835    Alexander Fraser Tytler   Universal History to the Reign of George II
1837    Georg W. F. Hegel          Philosophy of History
1840    Charles von Rotteck        General History of the World
1844    Samuel Maunder              Treasury of History
1847    Henry White                     Elements of Universal History
1853    Georg Weber                   Outlines of Universal History
1859    Samuel G. Goodrich         History of All Nations
1869    Evert Duyckinck               History of the World
1874    William Swinton                Outlines of World History
1880    Karl Julius Ploetz              Epitome of Universal History
1882    Edmund Ollier                  Cassell’s Illustrated Universal History
1885    George Park Fisher          Outlines of Universal History
1885    John Clark Ridpath           Cyclopaedia of Universal History
1887    Nugent Robinson              A History of the Whole World with Sensations
1888    Friedrich Ratzel                 History of Mankind
1889    Philip Van Ness Myers     General History for Colleges and High Schools
1893    John Clark Ridpath           Great Races of Mankind
1898    Israel Smith Clare             Library of Universal History
1901    Hans L. Helmolt               The History of the World
1902    Justi et al.                         History of All Nations
1904    Henry Smith Williams        Historian’s History of the World
1905    Josephus Nelson Larned   World History, or, Seventy Centuries
1907    Henry Cabot Lodge          History of Nations
1911    Houston S. Chamberlain    Foundations of the Nineteenth Century
1912    Victor Duruy                     A General History of the World
1913    Edward Ellis                      Story of the Greatest Nations
1914    Eva March Tappan           The World’s Story
1915    James Bryce et al.             The History of All Nations
1919    H.G. Wells                        The Outline of History
1919    Oswald Spengler               Decline of the West
1921    Hutton Webster                 World History
1921    Hendrik W. Van Loon       The Story of Mankind
1925    Charles F. Horne               The World and its People
1926    James Henry Breasted        The Conquest of Civilization
1926    James Harvey Robinson     The Ordeal of Civilization
1927    Albert McKinley                World History Today
1928    Lynn Thorndike                  A Short History of Civilization
1928    Geoffrey Parsons                The Stream of History
1929    John A. Hammerton            The Universal History of the World
1932    Carlton Hayes                    World History
1934    Jawaharlal Nehru                Glimpses of World History
1934    Arnold Toynbee                  A Study of History
1935    Harry Elmer Barnes            History of Western Civilization
1936    E. H. Gombrich                  A Little History of the World
1936    Will & Ariel Durant             The Story of Civilization
1937    Albert Kerr Heckel             On the Road to Civilization
1938    Edwin Pahlow                     Man’s Great Adventure
1938    Marcus Wilson Jernegan      The Progress of Nations
1940    William L. Langer                Encyclopedia of World History
1941    Edward McNall Burns         Western Civilizations


1946    Carl Becker                       Story of Civilization
1949    Lester Rogers                    Story of Nations
1955    Tielhard de Chardin           The Phenomenon of Man
1955    David Saville Muzzey         The Struggle for Civilization
1955    Crane Brinton                    A History of Civilization
1960    Chester G. Starr                A History of the World
1963    Fay-Cooper Cole              Illustrated Outline of Mankind
1963    Fernand Braudel                History of Civilizations
1963    Leften Stavrianos               A Global History of Man
1963    William McNeill                The Rise of the West
1963    Hawkes et al.                    History of Mankind
1968    Thomas P. Neill                 Story of Mankind
1972    John A. Garraty                 Columbia History of the World
1973    Hayden White                    Metahistory
1974    Edward McNall Burns       World Civilizations
1976    Arnold Toynbee                 Mankind and Mother Earth
1977    Richard Ostrowski              Echoes of Time
1980    Marvin Perry                      Unfinished Journey
1986    Gerald Leinwand                Pageant of World History
1991    Isaac Asimov                     Chronology of World Hsitory
1991    Larry Gonick                     Cartoon History of the World
1992    Larry S. Krieger                World History: Perspectives on the Past
1993    J. M. Roberts                    History of the World
1996    Dorling Kindersley             Chronicle of the World
1997    Elisabeth Ellis et al.            World History: Connections to Today
1997    Nathan Schur                     Relevant History of the World
1997    William T. Hanes et al.       World History: Continuities and Chjange
2000    Geoffrey Blainey                A Short History of the World
2001    Peter Haugen                    World History for Dummies
2004    James C. Davis                 The Human Story
2004    Roger Beck et al.              World History: Patterns of Interaction
2004    David Christian                  Maps of Time
2005    David Fromkin                  Way of the World
2005    Jackson Spielvogel            World History
2007    Peter Stearns et al.            World Civilizations
2007    Filipe Fernandez-Armesto  The World
2008    Timothy C. Hall                 A Complete Idiot’s Guide to World History
2011    Jerry Bentley et al.             Traditions and Encounters
2011    Robert Strayer et al.          Ways of the World
2011    Richard Bulliet et al.           The Earth and its Peoples
2012    John McKay et al.             A History of World Societies